Overstay really falls broadly into 2 categories! Those that leave voluntarily and those who are caught, imprisoned and deported.
Those that are not caught and leave voluntarily have to pay 500 baht per day and 99.9% they have no problem with the law. If you have over stayed up to a couple of weeks but not exceeding 40 days (40x500=20,000) just get a confirmed ticket to leave, go to the airport, pay your overstay fine and get on a plane and you will be able to fly out and return subject to the 90 rule on visa exemptions.
If it is a land border, it is normally also not such a major drama and you can leave and return without much drama AT the discretion of the duty immigration officer.
A couple of side issues you should be aware of! If you do have a long overstay, you will need to go to an Immigration office for clearance. If you want to leave the country shortly, before you go to immigration, please ensure that you have in your hand a confirmed paper ticket to leave the country by air, in less than 24 hours from that time, and you have 20,000 baht cash in your hand. If you do not, you will be detained and imprisoned awaiting deportation to your HOME country. It is also best in a long overstay case to take a lawyer with you.
If you are caught by a local police office in any locale with an overstayed visa, you will be deported to Bangkok. On arrival in Bangkok you will be taken to the district court in Bangna and charged with overstay. If you plead guilty you will be fined 3,000 baht minus 100 baht per day of your detention till that date. The court will then also issue a court order, to order your deportation to your country of origin.
If there is a court deportation order you will not have to pay the 20,000 baht fine, but of course you will have to arrange somehow for you to get money for a ticket to leave Thailand and return to your country. The Embassies of most western countries can arrange for you to be assisted to get money for you to be repatriated to you HOME country, but will be hesitant if not refuse to give you money to do a visa run. They will also want you to sign a loan agreement with your government to repay the money and may give you a temporary one page passport only valid to return to your country of origin.
Actually the process of deportation should only be about 3 days
but due to the fact the local police do not always want to travel
and deliver you to the IDC quickly, most people spend about 7-15
day in detention. Of course if you don't have a passport, things
can get a bit complicated and you may find that you are stuck in
some police station upcountry awaiting for a clarification from
your embassy or immigration Bangkok. Not very pleasant I am afraid!
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